Given by mouth is the most common route of drug administration, however it also the one with the most complicated pathway to the target tissues most drugs are absorbed in the intestinal tract by passive transfer and usually end up in the portal circulation encountering the liver and thus high chance of passing the first-pass effect . Subcutaneous drug delivery and the drug administration by sc injection results in delivery to the absorption of drugs following sc administration is linked, in. This three page article is a good introduction into absorption and administration of drugs the article summarizes the different processes of absorption including passive diffusion, facilitated passive diffusion, active transport and pinocytosis.
The injection of a drug directly into the patient's veins is the most rapid route of administration, resulting in the most rapid onset of action much less frequently used is intraarterial , injecting drug directly into the patient's arteries. The oral route is still the most desired route for the administration of medicinal products 1 due to the ease and lack of inconvenience associated with this administration route, in comparison to others such as the pulmonary route or the more invasive intravenous route the pharmaceutical industry . The drug is quickly absorbed through the lungs into the bloodstream, providing a speed of onset of activity that is comparable to that of intravenous administration one compound, az-004, being developed by alexza pharmaceuticals, is in phase 2 clinical trials in schizophrenic patients.
Routes of administration are usually classified by application location (or exposition) the route or course the active substance takes from application location to the location where it has its target effect is usually rather a matter of pharmacokinetics (concerning the processes of uptake . Drug absorption, distribution and metabolism once the drug is administered, the phamacokinetic phase or absorption begins the route of administration, the solubility of the drug and the presence of inflammation influence the rate of absorption. Sublingual and buccal medication administration are two different ways of giving medication by mouth sublingual administration involves placing a drug under your tongue to dissolve and absorb . Another kind of route of drug administration is known as with the next three ways by which drugs are absorbed of drug administration: oral, topical, inhalation & injection related study . Amoxicillin is stable in the presence of gastric acid and is rapidly absorbed after oral administration the effect of food on the absorption of amoxicillin from the tablets and suspension of amoxicillin has been partially investigated.
Bioavailability (ba) is a term used in pharmacology and nutritional and environmental sciences in pharmacology, it refers to the degree and rate at which an administered drug is absorbed by the body's circulatory system, the systemic circulation bioavailability is an essential measurement tool . Drug administration the giving of a therapeutic agent to a patient, eg by infusion, inhalation, injection, paste, suppository or tablet drug 1 any medicinal substance 2 . Although only a small fraction of the drug is absorbed per unit area of intestine, the large surface area allows complete absorption of even acidic compounds enteral routes of drug administration: --- rectum. Routes of drug administration first pass effect is the term used for hepatic metabolism of drug when absorbed and delivered through portal blood greater the . Routes of drug administration p verma (1) , • first-pass effect - drugs absorbed orally are initially transported to the liver via the portal vein.
There are many routes of medication administration (the way that a drug is placed into the body) based on the specific medication being used, the rate of absorption desired, and the specific site of action (where the medication needs to have an effect) your doctor or pharmacist will instruct you on the route of administration needed for you. Identical drugs can produce different results depending on the route of administration for example, some drugs are not significantly absorbed into the bloodstream from the gastrointestinal tract and their action after enteral administration is therefore different from that after parenteral administration. Most drugs are absorbed from small intestine but some are absorbed from stomach and colon on oral administration, drug action has a slower onset and more prolonged but less potent effect than when drugs are given parenterally.
Use of im and sc is contraindicated because of poor absorption and potential local necrosis due to the vasoconstrictive action of the drug109 for methylprednisolone sodium succinate and hydrocortisone sodium succinate, im administration is contraindicated for treatment of idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura, and iv is the only injection route . 1 absorption of drugs absorption is the transfer of a drug from its site of administration to the bloodstream the rate and efficiency of absorption depend on the route of. Enteral routes of drug administration involve the digestive tract and involve orally taking the drug or using a suppository the substance will be slowly absorbed . Table 1: pros and cons of different routes of drug administration route advantages disadvantages • most orally administered drugs are absorbed slowly.